Industry 4.0 and IIOT, Its Impact on the Industrial Scenario
Sugata Bandyopadhyay
Discipline Head (Instrumentation &
Automation) & Consultant
Tata Consulting Engineers Limited

The Industry 4.0 had put a new dimension on the way things may work. It had ushered in Disruptive Technologies like IOT & New Packaging of Concepts to work in a different platform. Now inanimate objects are made intelligent and web enabled with its own Analytic tool to participate in a global network. As a result Business Analysis, Shop floor production, quality, reliability & supply chain management operate in a coherent mode .This results in, better quality, on time delivery, optimized Cost, plant efficiency & reliability excellent working condition, new area of business & protection of environment, safety & health.

Industry 4.0 had ushered in a new generation Technology to work in a collaborative Platform. The first industrial revolution started with the invention of steam engine, which replaced human labor with mechanization driven by the power of steam. With the invention of electricity, industry progressed one step further, ushering in large scale production and enhancement of scale production. Then with the introduction of Electronic devices, computers, and Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) the third industrial revolution came putting automated production which resulted in better quality, better control of the process & reduction in reduction of wastages and hence better cost. The fourth industrial revolution came, when the Internet technology was adopted establishing connectivity of smart devices with technology to communicate and sense or interact with their internal states or the external environment. Industry 4.0 introduced Internet technology, Robotic Tools, Big Data Analytics which introduced smart production matching with latest state of the art requirement of the 21st century and putting more value to products & services

Thus to understand the impact of Industry 4.0 on Industry, a deep understanding of IOT (Internet of Things) is required. The Internet of Things (IOT) is an environment where physical objects (often termed smart objects) are connected by Internet enabled networks. In practice it consists of web enabled sensors embedded in various processes, machines and devices that share information on web for monitoring, controlling & also creating database for future use in Cyberspace.

Thus in IIOT Packaging of New Technologies, Open Standards, Pervasive Communication, Computing including Cloud Computing & Embedded Computing, Sensing Devices including GPS devices are driving the growth and creating Innovating Products.

To introduce IOT some readily referred terms which are the integral part of IIOT need to be considered. They are the followings:

Cloud Storage. In cloud storage arrangement for subscribed storage of data in remote servers designated as clouds are offered as a storage medium of big data and managed by service providers for integrity & security and accessible through the internet,.

Cloud Computing: Cloud computing ensures implementation of various diverse operations like computing and data analytics in time sharing mode through resources available in the cloud as a service. It enables shared computing functions & dynamic storage facilities. This concept eliminates capital investment and introduces Pay as one derives the services, i.e. shared facilities.

Cloud Analytics: In this system Predictive Maintenance, Advanced Computation driven results and decisions, Optimization of Systems etc. are undertaken, without investing on local dedicated system. The Analytic software ensures fast and secure procedures for searching , analyzing and visualizing the enormous streams of physical system data generated by process & also other related & unrelated disparate data . It also supports working in technology infrastructure, physical & virtual environment in the cloud.

IIOT: High Volume Internet of things products and applications are driving with creation of low cost, high power Micro Computers & Integrated Circuits (IC) with Integrated Communication and low cost Sensors to interface with Cyber Physical System.

Edge Computing:Edge devices are those devices which captures information from the process or environment. These edge-of-network devices apart from data collection also have storage and incorporate open, embedded computing platforms to take executable decision at the edge level & also control structured flow of information as considered appropriate to other elements of the network. Embedded Analytic tools also embedded on the edge devices operate to remotely carry out analytical functions like analyzing and transmitting to remote control centers about the conditions of various lifesaving parameters of an expensive and crucial equipment like big motors/ rotating equipment.

Figure 1: Domain of Internet of Things

Iota is thus a world where anything including an inanimate object or a machine can be connected and can communicate in an intelligent fashion by imparting intelligence by putting embedded sensors, storage & analytical capabilities using cyber physical system. Thus with Internet of Things, the physical world behaves like one big connected system. Thus in IIOT (Industrial Internet of Things) Packaging of New Technologies, Open Standards, Pervasive Communication, Computing including Cloud Computing & Embedded Computing, Sensing Devices including GPS devices are driving the growth and creating Innovating Products

Thus it is evident that IIOT role in industries is substantial. We can broadly describe the role as
  • IIOT Platforms by
  • Tracking the plant information by smart embedded sensors and data eliminates unplanned shut down. This results Greater Reliability of Plant & Equipment.
  • Improved Process Efficiency and improved Productivity by optimizing Asset utilization.
  • Reduction of unwanted Wastage of material & Utilities.
  • All these result in reduction of Cost of Production.
  • Efficient handling of diverse task automatically & correlating useful information and creating more opportunity in the system.
  • Consolidation and working on Disparate Data with special tool results in development of more Smart Asset Strategies.
IIOT and Asset Performance Management (APM)

Asset Performance Management (APM) program is IIOT enabled and works on Special Algorithm for consolidation of Disparate Data , Building Data Analytic Model and executing Condition Monitoring of a variety of System , resulting :
  • Web based access to get visibility on Process Condition & Asset Health and performance of all types of assets.
  • Asset Reliability by analyzing Asset Status & Evolving maintenance strategy to eliminate Unplanned Shutdown.
  • Working on Big data Analysis and working on Risk based Strategies to Identify Critical Assets , Identifying areas of Improvement on the chain of Assets based on past trends , Reduce Production loss & Improved Efficiency
  • Elimination of Human error and equipment malfunctioning by using expert system tools.
  • Root Cause Analysis on All Incidents applicable for Production, Environment, Health & Safety, Security & Quality & Customer Feedback.
The Culture brought are working with better quality, improved efficiency, minimized downtime, Reliability Safety, Better Environment & Customer satisfaction.

IIOT and Product life Cycle

The new generation requirement is to continuously update existing product or to launch new product with changing requirements of users. This is a great challenge for a complex product which consists of a great number of components, specifically when the components are manufactured at different locations, which often are globally distributed in various continents.

Whenever a product change is initiated with improved features, it triggers a change in various components with reference to shape size, electrical power, hydraulic system and many other parameters. Also the components that are not impacted need to be checked for compatibility with the changed components for coherent functioning. Any inability to meet the above requirement within the dead line will result in failure of launching the product in time resulting in a huge loss in time & cost.

Figure 2: Product Lifecycle Management

Thus a strategy need to be formulated, to online control & share in 3D graphics, the entire changed engineering process with simulation based checking on compatibility & performance and fitment of changed and retained components packaged in an eye catching design. This involves a synergy between Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Material Resource Planning (MRP ), 3D automated drawing methods with time scheduling & product costing under the domain of Product life Cycle (PLM). This also ensures on line the transparency in sharing accurate product information, component wise, in the assembly line & information sharing & changed process management & an ecosystem for integrated operating eliminating nonconformance in the product and inculcating a culture of integrated team operation between all the stakeholders.

IOT integrates the PLM with other domain of the product value chain and logistics chain.

Key Steps to be IIOT Compliance
  • Tagging: All Raw material, Intermediate Product & Final Product to be identified by separate names and codified by barcode or other methods. Then these can be identified and digitized for further processing. Collection & Analysis of these data will have significant impact on the value chain management.
  • Measuring: All product components in the value chain to be measured to acquire comprehensive information on the product & the production state. By analyzing these data Product quality, improvement of processing time & cost reduction.
  • Transmit Connect, Manage & Analyse: Secured data capture and transmission with digitized coded items with digitized information on quality & status. Establish wireless communication through various methods, capture all relevant data, store, analyse in real time for further decision making .Management & maintaining of huge data base and sharing only relevant information with the appropriate program is very important for the process success.
  • Security of Plant Data & Plant Safety secured communication by proper encryption & secured data storage & handling will ensure confidentiality on private information.
Opportunities and Challenges Introduced by IIOT

The opportunities and challenges faced by any entrepreneur are Globalization , requirement of horizontal & vertical integration to compete with scale of demand & ensuring the value chain, requirement of resource with proper competency, adoption of dynamic product life cycle management & benchmarking the products to ensure quality, price, and delivery in time & adoption of dynamic product upgradability. With all these the entire globe is the market where adopting smart method of manufacturing, Asset Management System, Product Life cycle Management and IIOT based value chain, sustainability in business can be ensured with quality, meeting product demand, on time delivery, competitive price with healthy bottom line.